Saturday, 28 July 2012


By Abid Bahar
 (Adopted from Abid Bahar's book "Burma's Missing Dots" Xlibris, 2010,  p. 209-221)

Arakani researcher San Shwe Bu thinks the Chandras were from Hindu dynasty but later on converted to Mohayana Buddhism. According to him the king and the people both were of Indian origin. The coins of Wasali had the image of Siva engraved on it. M.S. Collins says, “The coins of Wasali were in pure Brahminical tradition.”

 The Indian Chandra aristocracy called the ancient dark skinned people of Arakan as the Rakkhasas. 

788 During the reign of Arakani Indian Chandra King Mahat Sing Daya’s time recorded in the royal chronicle that several Arab ships wracked on Ramree Island. "Survivors were sent to Arakan proper and settled in villages."  Similar Arab settlements were recorded in the other parts of southern part of Chittagong. 

785-957  Arab traders began to settle both in Arakan and Chittagong of present Bangladesh. Inter mixture with the local population led to the first Chandra-Rohingyas of Arakan. During this time, in both Arakan and Chittagong, the influence of Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic, Persi, Portuguese combined together eventually  formed the Chandra-Rohingya dialect which  is similar to the Chittagonian dialect with their slight variations. The same dialect is also spoken by the Chakmas, and the Tanchaingyas of Chittagong Hill Tracts. The reason must be that all these ethnic groups despite their racial differences were the citizens of ancient Chandra kingdom.

9th Century Chandra invasion of Chittagong; Hindus of Chittagong believe that Muslims have changed the original Sanskrit name of Chittagong from "Chatta gram" into "Chaitigaon." However, the Arakani historians claim that the name Chittagong was originally given by an Arakanese king. It says, an Arakani king eracted a pillar at Chittagong in the nineth century A. D. with a remark "to make war is improper." It is true during this time a Chandra king (not a Mogh king) ruled Arakan.

There was no Mogh Rakine kingdom in Arakan yet. Arakan was ruled by Chanda king Shoe Ratan. The language of the king was not the Burmese Moghhi "Tsit-ta-gungin", "to make war is improper" as was made up later on. To make war improper seem an unlikely slogan by a fighter king.

The original statement "to make war is improper" seems more like the declaration of a peace treaty between two parties than as it is presented as the declaration of a victory by an Arakani king. Under the circumstance of the nonexistance of  Burmese language in Arakan, instead of the Burmese "Tsit-ta-gungin", it would seem that the Chandras used Sanskrit language "Shoukeet Thakom" (in English meaning "We live in peace") The latter expression in Chittagonian or in Chandra-Rohingya language seems historically more consistent. But one might wonder how this misinterpretation of a huge magnitude "Tsit-ta-gungin", "to make war is improper" remained as truth for so long? Many of the contemporary research on Arakan show that after the event of 1784, Burmese invasion of Arakan, Burmese king took the Arakani chronocles to Burma proper. The Arakani Sanskrit chronicles were rewritten in Burmese along with a tendentious interpretation of events entered into Arakani history

Mongoloid invasion and the beginning of "Kula" (Chandra) exodus to North Arakan and Chittagong.  Beginning of Arakan's two solitudes: Rakhine in the South  and Rohingya in the North.

957 Mongolian (Burmese) invasion and fall of the Chandras and the beginning of Tabaung Mongoloid dynasty and also the beginning of "Kula" (Chandra Indians, ancient Rohingya) exodus to eastern India (Chittagong) Martin Smith says “… hidden by undergrowth in the forests of Arakan, local Rakhines also found a great golden Buddha image, known as the Mahamuni statue, which belongs to the Mahayana Buddhist tradition and must have predated the Rakhine arrival by some centuries.” Martin Smith. Smith says further in his ‘The Muslim “Rohingya” of Burma’: “What is interesting here is the unusual history of Buddhism in Arakan, which some observers believe helps explain the particular importance of the religious issue in Arakan and the apparent chauvinism by some - though not, of course, all - of the later Rakhine nationalist movements.”

1044-77 Rise of Burmese pagan king Anwardhta in Burma proper with Teraveda political Buddhism and "reduces North Arakan"into a province of Burma.  This was also the beginning of the Burmese Mongoloid settlement in Arakan known now as the Moghs.The religion changes from Mohayana into Hinayana or Theraveda Buddhism.

Beginning of Chakma exodus from Arakan 1044-77 Rohingyas (Arakani Hindus and Muslims) left Arakan for Chittagong. Chakma Royal history says that in this war against the Burmese, they sided with the Bengalis (the Chandras) but were defeated. 1287 - Mongols under Kublai Khan conquer Pagan.

1406 Burmese King Min Khaung Yaza invades Arakan and Noromi-kala the king of Arakan along with his followers took asylum at Gaur the court of Bengal sultan Gaisuddin Azam Shah. The Sultan welcomed Noromi kla to serve as an officer in the army.
1430 After 24 years Sultan Jalal uddin Khan sent "Wali Khan as the head of 20 thousand Pathan army" to restore Noromikla to his throne. Noromikla takes the name Sulauman Shah and becomes the king.

1431 General Wali Khan removes Noromikla and rules Arakan as an independent Muslim ruler for couple of years.
He introduced Persian as the official language of Arakan. Noromikla escapes to Bengal again.

1433 Nadir Shah sent General Sindhi Khan with 30,000 solders helped restore Noromi kla as the king. This time Arakan becomes a province of Bengal. Wali Khan was killed in the battle and his followers were allowed to settle near Kalander River. In return for the help, the Arakani king promised to return the twelve towns of Bengal, which most likely be the the whole of southern Chittagong with perhaps twelve small feuds then under Mogh rule.

Arakan began to pay annual taxes and Persian began to be used as the court language.  1433 Foundation of the Mrauk U dynasty in the city of Mrohaung near Lamro River. Mrohaung became a populous sea port, "built on hillocks amid the rice plain and intersected by canals which served as streets.” "Sindi Khan's followers settled in Mrohaung and its suburban areas.  It was the beginning of a large Rohingya community and culture in Arakan. During this time the neighbourhood of

Mruak -U city's South Eastern region named as Kalapanzan and a trading port named "Bandar" a Persian name meaning port were populated by the Rohingyas. Some scholars believe that the name Rohingya derived from "Mrohaung" the name of the city, and "gya" Chittagonian means natives was known to have been given by Chittagonian Bengalis to the people who arrived to Chittagong from the direction of the "Mrohaung" city. This can’t be true because, the name was a Burmese given to the Mruak -U city and the Rohingya has its independent development.

1538 Sher Shah defeated the Sulltan of Gaur which led to the fall of the kingdom of Bengal and the beginning of the Mogh- Portuguese piracy in the Bay.

14th century A. D. To escape Mogh capture, Chakmas left southern Chittagong for Raojan in northern Chittagong and finally moves to the north East of Chittagong Hill Tracts where they live today.

 26th August 1660 Shah Suja, the Moghul prince started from Dhaka arrived in Lakhipur of Comilla then to Monipur, then to Raujan and then to Diang of Chittagong. From Diang he travelled by land to Ramu, to Eidgah and traveled to the Naf River and from there by boat to Mrohaung city. Sandathudamma, the king of Arakan welcomed him but later in the same year the prince and his family were brutally murdered by the use of axe and their vluables were looted." Everyday the gold and silver, which the Arakanese have taken, are brought into the king's treasery to be melted down." 7th February 1661 Shah Suja was kille, reported by Garret Von Bergo.

1665 To avenge the death of the prince and to stop Mogh-Portuguese piracy in the Bay, Shaista Khan launched the conquest of Chittagong. General Hossain Beg and General Umed Khan led the forces. The end of Mogh control of Chittagong and piracy in lower Bengal led an "incredible rejoicing of Bengal."

Moghs left behind their Bengali wives and concombines and children now called the Baruas. Baruas also call themselves as the Rajbanshis meaning the offsprings of the Moghs."  There are two large Barua settlements in Satbatia and another one in Chokroshala of southern Chittagong.

Shah Suja's death, Mogh-Muslim discont in Arakan and the Rohingya refugees in Chittagong.

1666 The return of the defeated Mogh pirates to Arakan led to the beginning of anti Bengali, anti Rohingya discontent in

Arakan. Many Rohingyas left Arakan to escape death. Poet Alaol was put in Jail in Arakan for a while but escaped to Chittagong with his famous manuscript" Padmaboti". The Children of Maghan Thakur (the Muslim Chief Minister of Arakan) among others also escaped Arakan but empty handed and settled in northern Chittagong) Habibullah records that from 1670, the Mogh pirates were reported to have been involved in an anti Muslim riot.

1684 Sandathudamma the king of Arakan died.

1685-1783 Anarchy in Arakan, there were ten kings during this time. The last one being Tamada Raja ruled upto 1783.

1799, Francis Buchanon Hamilton, a British historian in his visit to Burma met some Rohingya people in Burma speaking in a language they called Roinga.
1760 Possession of Chittagong from the Moghuls by the East India Company. Burmese attempt to invade Chittagong was foiled by the British with enthusiastic support from the Bengali people of Chittagong.

1784-1824 Burmese rule of Arakan:



1784-85 Burmese king Bodapawpaya’s conquest of Arakan led to the mass migration of Mogh and the Rohingya to Chittagong. Moghs settles in Bandarbon, and Cox's Bazar. Rohingyas settled in southern Chittagong. Pierre Bessaignet says "By the end of the eighteeth century, as a result of Burmese invasions, two-thirds of the population of Arakan have fled to Chittagong..." Habibullah says, “Muslims escaped by the sea and amalgamated with the locals and the Moghs went to settle in the forest.”

1797 Both Buddhists and Muslims were equally tortured and mass migration of Arakanese to Chittagong took place.
Habibullah estimates "About 1000,000 Mogh and 30,000 Rohingyas entered Chittagong. Rohingyas settled in southern
Chittagong in localities were called "Roai Para." During this time the term "Moghur Mulluk" to refer Arakan as a lawless society came into use.

Harvey says “The reasoning on which Bodawpaya acted was not pecular to him. It was the regular policy of most Burmese kings...It was not unlike the policy of European countries in former times, but they outgrew it. Hervey says Arakan had never been populas, and now it became a desert; the towns were deserted and overgrown with jungle, and there was nothing to be seen but "utter desolation...moras, pestilence and death." Harvey says "And here most of the fugitives were not even political refugees, but simply harmless people fleeing from death. And the years went by there came to be 50,000 of them-it was sort of racial migration" Harvey seems to refer to the widespread

Rohingya migration to Chittagong. Burmese practice of oppression was such that “To break the spirit of the people, they would drive men, women,and children into bamboo elclosures and burn them alive in hundreds. The depopulation was such that there are valleys where even today the people have scarcely recovered their oiginal numbers and men still speak with a shudder of Manar Upadrab "the oppression of the Burmese"  Harvey says the above is a tragic story.
But it is the story of the kings, not of the people. The Burmese had never used coins and hence he had no model of his own. He copied therefore the Moslem design. Habibullah says, “To introduce the same justice system, coinage he by the use of force took three thousand seven hundred Muslims from Arakan to Burma. They are called in Burmese Thum Htaung Khunya (three tousand seven hundred)

1824 First Anglo-Burmese war and the British occupation of Arakan andTenasserim. Habibullah says, Driven out of

Arakan some of these Rohingyas went back to Arakan and others settled in Southern Chittagong.However, these Arakanese Muslims were later branded in the British record as "Chittagonian".

1824-26 - First Anglo-Burmese war and the Treaty of Yandabo. Burma ceded the Arakan coastal strip, between Chittagong and Cape Negrais. 1852 Second Anglo-Burmese war and the annexation of Pegu.

1885 Third Anglo-Burmese war and the annexation of upper Burma.

1917-18 Revival of Burmese Nationalist movements in the formation of Young man’s Buddhist Association (YMBA).

1930 Burmese -Indian Riot,  Utomo, a fungi leadeer also a monk from Arakan  leads anti Indian riot in Rangoon and in Arakan.

Ultra nationalist movement spreads in Arakan. Previouslsly known as the Arakanese, Moghs officially changes their name to Rakhine.

1935 Burma was separated from British India.

1938 Buddhist-Muslim riot

1942 Japanese occupation of Burma and Burmese ultra nationalists massacre minorities such as Karens, Shans, Chins, and Rohingyas.

1942 The ultra nationalist Arakani group taking a leaf from the Burmese anti- Indian slogan branded the Rohingyas as the

Chittagonians. The Rohingya genocide of 1942 in which over a 100,000 Rohingyas were massacred. Large scale Rohingya exodus to Chittagong took place.

1942 Rohingya armed resistance movement. Jaffor Kawwal, Mohammed Abbas, and Kassim gave leadership. Rohingyas were branded by the government as separatists.

1945  British reoccupation of Burma and Japanese were driven out. Some Rohingyas returned to Arakan.

1947  Panglong minority conference held in Panglong, Shan region.

1947 Aung San (1915-1947) before he could become the first prime minister of the independent Burma, he and his six colleagues including U Razzak were assassinated on July 19, 1947.

1948 Independence of Burma.

1948 Like the other discontented minorities such as Karen, Mon and the others, Rohingya’s open revolt in Mujahid movement

1949 Karen and Mon revolt                

1949 Rohingyas occupy most of north Arakan.

1950 Memorandum by the pubic of Maungdaw demanding fundamental rights and the unconditional repatriation of Rohingya refugees left Arakan in 1942 to Chittagong.

1951 Rohingya demand for immediate cessation of genocide of Rohingyas in Arakan. Rohingya properties were confiscated, and the nationalists began dismissing Rohingyas from government jobs.

1954 Memorandum of appeal by Rohingyas demanding fundamental rights and freedom.

1958 U Nu formed a care taker peace restoration council with General Ne Win's leadership. Ne Win began his Rohingya extermination pogram. 20,000 Rohingyas took shelter in Chittagong. Habibullah reports, “The Burmese government assured that it was the work of an extremist group of Akyab and took back the refugees.” 

1958 Shan and Kachin revolt.

1959a Kayah revolt.

1959 Burma agreed with East Pakistan Governor Zakir Hossain to take back Rohingya refugees who have taken shelter in Chittagong in 1958.

1960 Rohingya memorandum of appeal to chairman of constitution Revision Committee by Public of North Arakan through Mr. Sultan Mahmud, ex-M.P. and parliamentary secretary) to keep in view the difficulties to be remedied on grant of Arakan state.

1960 U Nu formed Mayu Frontier Administration and kept it under direct central government control. The Moghs branded it as the central government's divide and rule policy.

1960 Rohingya broadcasting center was allowed.

1960 Memorandum by Rohingya M.P.’s demanding autonomous state or direct government rule or Rohingya parity in services on grant of Arakan state.

1960 Representation to Prime Minister U Nu by Mr. M.A. Subhan demanded unconditional release of detainees (in Akyab Central Jail) arrested under Citizenship Act, the Immigration Emergency Provision Amendment Act, etc.

1961 4th July Rohingya Mujahids surrenders arms. Brigadier Aung Gi termed Rohingyas a "peaceful community"

1961 U Nu’s declaration of Buddhism as the state religion of Burma and reaction among the Karen Christians, Chin, Rohingya, and the Mon animists complicating the situation.

1961 Formation of army administration in Rohingya areas.

1962 U Nu opens federal seminar to hear minority problems.

1962 2nd March General Ne Win (1911-2002) took over power, dissolved federal seminar, arrested minority leaders.

The expulsion of Indians from Burma began and many walked on foot and parished on their way to India and Pakistan. See Chakraverty. In the name of driving out Indians, the destruction of some Rohingya places in Arakan were also done.

1970 Burmese government agreed that Rohingya areas to be ruled by the military with Arakanese Burmese in the administration.

1972 Memorandum to General Ne Win by Rohingya leaders to stop deterioration of Rohingya situation.

1973 Formation of R.P.F. (Rohingya Patriotic Front).

1974 Government’s denial of Rohingyas’ right to vote. Rohingya demonstration all over Arakan leading to mass arrest.

1978 Rohingya exodus of 207,172 refugees to Bangladesh.

1978 After international agencies investigation of documents carried by the refugees proving them as Burmese citizens, Burmese Government agreed to repatriate the refugees.

1981,  2000 of the 1978 refugees, Rohingya leaders (a total of 5000) still remained in Bangladesh, India, and in other foreign countries.

1982 The Military government passes the Citizenship Act depriving the Rohingya's Burmese citizenship. The military's policy was the removal of Rohingyas “from civil posts, intensified and restrictions on their movement, and confiscation of their property were done."

1988 Sein Lwin: Known as the "butcher" was behind the crackdown of student uprising in 1988.

1989 - Daw Aung San Suu Kyi leader of the National League of Democracy Party, an elected leader of the Burmese people remains under house arrest. In 1991, she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1990 - Opposition National League for  Democracy (NLD) wins landslide victory in general election, but the result is ignored by the military.

1991-1992 Refugee international report says: "The Rohingya have faced continuing persecution by the military government in Burma, and have escaped to Bangladesh in large numbers, with the biggest influx in 1991 and 1992, when over 250,000 of them crossed the border. Although many of these refugees have since then been repatriated to Burma, there are still about 21,500 refugees living in two camps in southern Bangladesh. The refugees are completely dependent on UN and aid agencies for food.

In addition, an estimated 200,000 Rohingya are living illegally in Bangladesh without access to protection or humanitarian assistance." 1992 in south-western Bangladesh for the thousands of refugees, only two camps remain and even these are expected to be closed by June 2003. New arrivals from Burma have been denied access to these camps since 1995 and there are an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 Rohingya living outside the camps."

2003 Aung San Suu Kyi detained again, after a year's freedom.

2004 Refugee International, 2004 reports that Rohingyas "... need authorization to travel outside of their villages, their land is confiscated by the government for use by Buddhist settlers, their mosques are destroyed by the military and they are routinely subjected to forced labor."

2005 Burma declares that its seat of government is moving to a new site near the central town of Pyinmana.

2005 Arrest of a Rohingya member of the parliament (MP) and given life sentence for helping his people. 

2005 The pro military government's Mogh intellectual Aye Chan’s co-authored book "Influx Viruse" demeaning Rohingyas as deadly enimies needed to be exterminated.

2006 The anti -Muslim riot from a rumor that some Muslim men raped a Burmese women supported by some Buddhist Monks and opposed by other peace-loving Burmese in Rangoon but spread to Arakan causing tension between the Muslims and the

Buddhists. The ban on Rohingyas getting married to Rohingyas introduced a genocidal crime against humanity.

2006 ANC (Arakani National Council) a xenophobic Mogh organization declares the Rohingyas as Bangladeshis and in the agenda recommends to the democracy leaders to exclude Rohingyas from any future share of power in Arakan.

2006 Aung San Su Ki, the elected democracy movement leader continues to remain under house arrest in Burma away from her family for years.

2006 Burmese democracy movement continues at home and abroad.  However, primarily due to Rohingya's racial differences with the Burmans, secondly, due to the existance of some xenophobic but powerful Mogh leaders now leading the democracy movement in the Arakan province, the Rohingyas issue of statelessness remains largely an unpopular topic among Burma's high level democracy leaders. 

According to the Constitution, those ethnic groups that lived within the Burmese territory before 1823 are the natives of Burma and are qualified to be the citizens of Burma. Rohingyas are not included in this definition and branded as foreigners in Burma.. Burma has one hundred thrity five recognized ethnic groups but Rohingyas are not included among them. 

2006 March - Nay Pyi Taw –the new capital hosts its first official event, an Armed Forces Day parade.

2007 August - Wave of public dissent sparked by fuel price hikes. Buddhist monks lead an unsuccessful "saffron revolution" against the junta.

2008 Aung San Suu Kyi still remains in jail.  UN mission fails to make any breakthrough.

2009 The increased number of Rohingya boat people in the sea: “With the refugee camps in Bangladesh long having stopped taking people, the Rohingya are now seeking to travel to Thailand and then make their way overland to Malaysia, and Indonesia. The Thai military has been accused of seizing hundreds of
refugees, towing them out to sea and “leaving them to die” without engines and barely any food or water.”

2010 March - Government announces that long-awaited election laws have been passed, with provisions for an electoral commission hand-picked by the junta

2011 March - Thein Sein is sworn in as president of a new, nominally civilian government.

2012 May The alleged rape and murder of a 27-year-old Buddhist Rakhine woman and the murder of 10 Muslim pilgrims triggered deadly sectarian clashes between Buddhist and Muslims in Arakan State starting on 8 June.
Leading provocateur working with security forces identified are are Aye Chan, Ko Ko Gui,
"According to the regime, as of 12 June, 21 people had died and 1,662 houses and a mosque had been destroyed as a result of the unrest. However, various organizations said that the death toll might be much higher as a result of escalating attacks and reprisals affecting Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhine.
"The authorities’ decades-long discriminatory policies and practices targeting Rohingya have reinforced the racial and religious animosity between the two communities in Arakan State. Rohingya have suffered restrictions on marriage, freedom of movement, and religious practice. In addition, the regime has routinely subjected Rohingya to forced labor, extortion, land confiscation, and other human rights abuses.

2012 June - Communal violence breaks out between Rakhine Buddhists and the Muslim Rohingya minority in Rakhine State. President Sein declares a state of emergency. Over 2,000 buildings, including seven mosques and nine Buddhist monasteries, have been destroyed.
• 90,000 people have been displaced.
Bangladesh pushes back more than 2,000 Rohingya fleeing violence in Arakan State. Bangladeshi FM says Bangladesh cannot take any more refugees from Burma “under any circumstances.”

2012 July  Thein Sein “told the United Nations that the million Rohingya people in Rakhine (formerly known as Arakhan) state are simply not welcome in Myanmar. They would be placed in camps or, preferably, deported. They are ethnically different from the Burman majority, and they are religiously Muslim, he said. The only solution is to hand them over to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees or resettle them in third countries that are willing to take them.”
The Bankok Post Editorial said: "President Thein Sein uttered some of the most distressing statements heard from a reform government in recent memory," said the editorial. The editorial said: “…the country and its leader still have a long way to travel to catch up on its 48 years as a cruel, violent military dictatorship.
“Myanmar is emerging from a long, dark history of violence. It is entering a new world, with norms that are quite different from 50 years ago. Thein Sein's statements about the Rohingya appear racist, malicious and threatening. They must not stand unchallenged.”
The recent ethnic clashes in western Myanmar have thrown off the facade of Burma of the past. International protest by foreign  governments and NGOs protests against Burmese government's hostile state policy.  The reports coming from Arakan confirms that the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya people continues.

Burma: A Country Study. March 1983. Edited by Frederica M. Bunge. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army.
Human Rights Watch (HRW)/Asia. 7 May 1992. Burma: Rape, Forced Labor and Religious Persecution in Northern Arakan. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Watch/Asia.

Rohingya Outcry, 1978, RPF
Abid Bahar, Burma's Missing Dots, Xlibris, 2010.

ALTSEAN Updates,
The New Mandala, "BBC under fire on Rohingyas,"​ 2011/11/03/bbc-under-fire-on-rohingyas/;
RACISM TO ROHINGYA IN BURMA AYE CHAN'S "ENCLAVE" WITH "INFLUX VIRUSES" REVISITED, Link:​racism-to-rohingya-in-burma-aye-chans-enclave-​with-influx-viruses-revisited/.

The New Mandala, "BBC under fire on Rohingyas,"​2011/11/03/bbc-under-fire-on-rohingyas/.

Abid Bahar, Tell Me, What is Rohingya Genocide in Burma?​tell-me-what-is-rohingya-genocide-in-burma/,

Chris Lewa, North Arakan: An open prison for the Rohingya in Burma  (Wednesday, April 15, 2009)

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